br The world population faces various types of climate
The world population faces various types of climate-related hazards, and both the frequency and intensity of hazards are projected to increase in the future because of climate change. Since climate change could increase human health risks, many previous studies first estimated future temperatures or weather-related extreme events on the basis of global circulation models under climate scenarios, such as representative concentration pathways. Then, they projected the elevated future mortality caused by climate change on the basis of the relationship between temperature and mortality obtained from historical data. Additionally, population changes and oleuropein scenarios were also considered to accurately address future health risks. Mortality changes linearly with total population. Demographic composition changes in ageing countries can increase future mortality because of the increasing proportion of vulnerable elderly groups, whereas adaptation scenarios can compensate death burdens. Although projection of future mortality due to climate change has been actively studied during this decade, achievement of a comprehensive understanding of climate change risks is not yet close. This absence of understanding is partly because the heterogeneity in previous studies makes it hard to synthesise their results. Additionally, little research has been done into the integrated effects of various climate-related hazards. In , Giovanni Forzieri and colleagues present the future effects of the seven most harmful weather-related extreme events in Europe due to climate change. These seven events are heatwaves, cold waves, droughts, wildfires, river and coastal floods, and windstorms. They estimated the occurrence and intensity of the seven disasters as well as demographic changes in Europe until the year 2100 under business-as-usual climate and socioeconomic scenarios. Human vulnerability to extreme weather was obtained from disaster databases.
Ambient air pollution is a major global health threat, responsible for an estimated loss of 103 million disability-adjusted life-years in 2015, and a main contributor to numerous health problems, such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Within the traffic domain of air pollution, cars, lorries, busses, mopeds, and scooters are all partly responsible, with the latter being of particular importance regarding, amongst others, black carbon, carcinogenic benzene, and (ultrafine) particulate matter exhaust.
Losses throughout the food system increase demands on agriculture, with consequent environmental impacts. A less wasteful and more efficient food system is a desirable goal, but what constitutes a loss and the relative magnitude of different types of loss are less clear. Research and policy related to food waste typically imply that the food system boundary extends to the point at which food is eaten. But if the objective of the food system is to provide sufficient healthy and nutritious food in a sustainable manner, then consumption in excess of nutritional requirements is also a form of food waste; the latter defined as the loss occurring from retailers\' and consumers\' behaviours. We suggest that the current food waste agenda and rhetoric warrants re-examination because overconsumption of food is more damaging to society than discarded food waste due to a combination of environmental and health costs. A last-portion dilemma can be posited, in which too much food is prepared for a meal and a proportion remains after the eaters are comfortably full. What are the issues that determine the socially responsible action, and what do they suggest about treating overconsumption as a loss? The desire to reduce waste seems to imply a duty for the diners to consume the remaining food. Other private and social behavioural motives might reinforce this action, such as a form of moral satisfaction from perceived waste reduction, and discounting the long-term implications from being overweight. Such small individual acts across a large population would materially reduce discarded food, and if total demand remains constant, would be reflected in lower agricultural production. Consequently, less land, water, fertiliser, and agrichemicals would be used in agriculture, with benefits in terms of lower greenhouse gas emissions, as well as water and biodiversity conservation.