br AURK Functions br Concluding
Concluding Remarks The AURKs are crucial regulators of cell division; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which these kinases function in meiosis. Recent work has begun to chip away at the specific roles that each of the kinases play; however, as more is uncovered, additional questions arise. If AURKB and AURKC do have non-overlapping functions in meiosis, how are they differentially regulated? (see Outstanding Questions). One potential source of differential regulation could be proximity to substrates. Based on data from mitotic calculating dilution that express both AURKB and AURKC, they exist in separate complexes . In addition, the kinases differ in catalytic activity levels, and AURKC, but not AURKB, is capable of binding to survivin, increasing its autophosphorylation . While AURKB and AURKC are similar in sequence and structure, catalytic activity, stability, and binding partner affinity differences are likely key to their separate functions. It is tempting to hypothesize that one requirement for two independent CPC pools could act to restrict the amount of survivin available to bind AURKC, thus limiting its activity, because overexpression of AURKC results in atypical mitotic progression in cancer cells . The high sequence similarity among the AURK family members has made discerning the individual kinase functions in meiosis challenging. Technical limitations in specifically targeting AURKB or AURKC using small-molecule inhibitors and compensatory abilities in single-knockout animals add to this challenge. Novel techniques will be necessary to discern the individual functions of these kinases in meiosis including methods to identify the endogenous localization of the kinases and targeted inhibition. Pinpointing the mechanism that restricts the isoforms to their respective signaling networks will be crucial for unraveling their complex functional regulation.
Acknowledgments The authors apologize for not being able to cite all the primary work because of space limitations. The authors would like to thank Drs Cecilia Blengini and Suzanne Quartuccio for editorial comments. Work documented in this review was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (F31HD089591 to A.L.N.) and (R01GM112801-02 to K.S.).
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